Maulana Abul Kalam Azad (1888–1958) was independent India’s first Minister of Education between 1947–58. Besides establishing the first Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), the School of Planning and Architecture (SPA ) and the University Grants Commission (UGC ), he also set up key cultural and literary organizations – the Sangeet Natak Akademi, the Lalit Kala Akademi, the Sahitya Akademi and the Indian Council for Cultural Relations.