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According to Buddhist tradition, eight different tribes built stupas to contain the remains of the Buddha. In 1898, a 2,500-year-old stupa was excavated at Piprahwa, Uttar Pradesh, by British colonial engineer and landowner W.C. Peppe. The solid brickwork stupa was 7 m (23 ft) high and its cupola measured 35 m (114.8 ft) in diameter. Most of the other surviving stupas go back to the reign of Emperor Ashoka (c. 273 to 232 BCE).